Materials Testing Machine FAQ Guide
A material testing system is an essential tool for material testing, and it has been used to specify the suitability of materials for a variety of applications – for example, construction or aircraft construction, machinery, or packaging. Full-scale or small-scale models of proposed machines or structures can be tested. Alternatively, researchers can build mathematical models that use known material properties and behavior to predict the ability of the structure. Below is a complete guide to materials testing systems:
1. What is a material testing machine?
The material testing machine, also known as the material testing system, is a precise test for measuring the mechanical properties, process properties, internal defects of metal materials, non-metallic materials, mechanical components, engineering structures, etc. under various conditions and environments, as well as checking the dynamic imbalance of rotating parts. instrument.
In the process of researching and exploring new materials, new processes, new technologies, and new structures, material testing machines are indispensable and important testing instruments. It is mainly used for testing and analysis of static properties such as tensile, compression, bending, shearing, peeling, tearing, holding the load, relaxation, and reciprocation of metals and non-metals (including composite materials).
2. Why are material testing machines important in the industry?
In order to ensure the quality and safety of materials, material testing has become an indispensable link in almost all industries. This is critical, especially in the construction and car manufacturing sectors, because it can hurt people if something is done wrong.
Therefore, the need for proper material testing becomes indispensable to protect the people who will use manufactured products. In most products, testing is done at the end of the production process. However, rather than testing the entire product, it is a good practice to test individual parts of the manufactured product.
A material testing machine is a tool that can solve this problem. Every part can be tested during the manufacturing process, which can completely reduce the loss of errors. In fact, more and more factories are choosing material testing machines to improve the safety of production.
4. How does the material testing machine work?
The material testing machine/texture analyzer has a load cell on its arm – a highly accurate strain gauge that can measure forces of up to 750kg. The arm moves up and down under the control of Exponent Connect software, which can be programmed to move at a selected speed and to a selected distance, or the instrument can operate as a pre-programmed standalone unit.
During testing, stress and strain data for compression/tension of the sample are recorded and analyzed. The data is usually displayed in the form of graphs, which are then analyzed and the relevant parameters are displayed in a spreadsheet. These parameters will be selected to be measured as important material properties to determine whether the material being tested is fit for purpose or conforms to established standard values.
Measurements outside of quality boundaries can lead to physical failure during use or quality changes during storage, with possible safety implications and ultimately damage to the product and/or company’s reputation.
5. What industries can the material testing machine be used for?
Materials and therefore the requirements for material testing are everywhere, including the plastics, medical, paper and cardboard, leather and textile, automotive, medical devices, building materials, and electronics industries.
6. What are the characteristics of the material testing machine?
Materials testing machines can be configured for a variety of applications simply by selecting the appropriate load cells, sample grips, optional materials testing software, and accessories such as extensometers, heat cabinets, and high-temperature furnaces.
7. What are the applications of the material testing machine?
Material testing machines are suitable for quality control, production, laboratory, R&D, or education. The wide range of testing capabilities listed above means that there are different applications in the market, such as:
- paper and cardboard
- electronic product
- building materials
8. What are the different types of material testing machines
According to the loading method, the material testing machine can be divided into static load testing machine (static load) and dynamic load testing machine (dynamic load).
8.1 Static testing machine
1) Universal testing machine
The universal testing machine is divided into two parts: the hydraulic universal testing machine and the electronic universal testing machine. It adopts twin-screw series and has an integrated structure of control, measurement, and operation. The universal testing machine combines contemporary advanced technology and has the advantages of high precision, wide speed range, compact structure, convenient operation, and stable performance.
Applicable materials: rubber, plastic, film, adhesive, steel bar, glass, touch screen, textile, waterproof material, wire and cable, net rope, metal wire, metal rod, metal plate and other photovoltaic materials and clothing industry, etc.
Test items: tensile stress, tensile strength, constant elongation stress, constant stress elongation, breaking strength, elongation after break, yield strength, elongation at yield point, tensile stress at yield point, tear strength, peel strength , puncture strength, bending strength, elastic modulus, etc.
- ISO 7500-1-2015 Static uniaxial testing machine verification for metallic materials
- GB/T 16491-2008 Electronic universal testing machine
- GB/T 17200-2008 Specification for tensile, compression and bending testing machines for rubber and plastics (constant speed drive)
- Rubber and plastic testing equipment. Tension, Bend and Compression Types
- ASTM D638-2003 Determination of Tensile Properties of Plastics
- ASTM D 695-2010 Test Methods for Compression Properties of Rigid Plastics
- ASTM D790-2003 Standard Test Method for Bendability of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials and Requirements for Plastic Pipe and Other Standards
2) Pressure testing machine
Pressure testing machine is also called electronic pressure testing machine.
Applicable materials: rubber, plastic sheet, pipe, profile, plastic film, wire and cable, waterproof coil, metal wire, carton and other materials
Test items: compression test, tensile test
Performance: Tensile test (stress-strain test) is generally to clamp both ends of the material sample on two fixtures separated by a certain distance, and the two fixtures are stretched apart at a certain speed to measure the stress on the sample. Change until the specimen fails.
- Temperature sensing rod: threaded thermocouple, sensitive, uniform, and high temperature measurement accuracy.
- Heater: Screw-in heater, high power, fast heating speed and durable.
- Copper column sleeve: brass material, wear-resistant, no resistance.
- Power system: It adopts a special motor, which runs smoothly, accurately, and without noise.
- Safety protection: Equipped with emergency protection devices, it can stop or reverse in an emergency.
3) Tensile testing machine
Same as a general tester.
Applicable materials: plastic sheet, pipe, profile, plastic film and rubber, wire and cable, steel, glass fiber, and other materials
Standards involved: GB/T16491, GB/T1040, GB/T18477, GB/T583, gb13022, etc.
Test items: static load, tensile, compression, bending, shearing, peeling, and other mechanical properties.
4) Torsion testing machine
Torsion testing machines are divided into spring torsion testing machines, wire torsion testing machines, and material torsion testing machines.
Applicable materials: metal, non-metal, and parts, etc.
The wire torsion testing machine is suitable for measuring the ability of a wire with a diameter (or feature size) of 0.1-10.0mm to withstand plastic deformation in unidirectional or bidirectional torsion and to display the surface and internal defects of the wire.
Test items: torsional performance test, maximum torque, torsional strength, upper yield strength, lower yield strength, etc.
Standards involved: International Standard ISO 7800:1984 “Metal Wire Rod Test Method for Unidirectional Torsion” and ISO 9649:1990 “Metal Wire Rod Bidirectional Torsion Test Method”.
5) Creep testing machine
Creep fatigue testing machine is divided into two types: mechanical type and electronic type according to the structure and principle; the mechanical type is a traditional product, and the electronic type is a new product developed in recent years.
Applicable materials: metal, non-metallic materials, etc.
Test items: tensile, compression endurance, creep, relaxation test, low cycle fatigue, and creep-fatigue test
- GB/T2039-1997 “Test method for the durability of metal tensile creep machine”
- HB5151-1996 “Test method for high-temperature tensile creep of metals”
- HB5150-1996 “Test method for high-temperature tensile durability of metals”
- JJG276-88 “High-Temperature Creep and Endurance Strength Testing Machine”
8.2 Dynamic testing machine
1) Dynamic and static universal testing machine
The main engine of the dynamic and static universal testing machine adopts a double-column structure, the maximum static load is 5KN, the maximum dynamic load is 2.5KN, and the measurement range is 2-100%.
- The host adopts a double-column structure.
- Symmetrical cyclic fatigue tests shall be performed on metallic and non-metallic materials. At the same time, related tests such as static tension can also be carried out.
- (The measurement and control system adopts AD850 universal test card and ATOS servo valve, which can realize automatic control of the entire test process and all keyboard operations.
- It has three control modes of load, displacement and deformation, and the function of smooth transition between control modes can automatically collect and process test data, draw test curves, and print test reports.
Applicable materials: various materials, parts, elastomers, rubber elastomers, shock absorbers, etc.
Test items: tensile, compression, bending, high and low cycle fatigue, crack propagation, fracture mechanics test
2. Fatigue testing machine
A fatigue testing machine is a machine that can perform fatigue testing in various ways. The test frequency can be divided into low-frequency fatigue testing machines, intermediate-frequency fatigue testing machines, high-frequency fatigue testing machines, and ultra-high-frequency fatigue testing machines.
Applicable materials: metal, alloy materials, and their components (such as operating joints, fasteners, screw moving parts, etc.)
Test items: Fatigue characteristics, fatigue life, prefabricated component cracks and crack propagation tests under alternating loads of tension, compression, tension, and compression at room temperature
Matters needing attention: The composite material cannot be fatigue tested with electromagnetic high-frequency fatigue testing machine, because the electromagnetic type is driven by the principle of electromagnetic resonance, which is related to the stiffness of the sample, so the composite material can only be driven by the motor for fatigue test.
3. Impact testing machine
Impact testing machine (English name: impact testing machine) refers to a material testing machine that applies an impact test force to a sample and conducts an impact test. Impact testing machines are divided into manual pendulum impact testing machines, semi-automatic impact testing machines, digital display impact testing machines, computer-controlled impact testing machines, drop-weight impact testing machines, and non-metal impact testing machines.
Applicable materials: metal, non-metallic materials
Test item: impact test
- Material selection and new material development
- Inspection and control of metallurgical products
- Process quality supervision
- Toughness evaluation under various conditions
- One of the important indicators of the delivery time of metallurgical products